SOFİSTLER 1

      Sofistler kendilerinden öncekilerden farklı olarak kosmos sorunu ile değil fakat insan sorunu ile ilgilenmişlerdir. Özellikle siyaset alanında üstün bilgiye sahiptirler. Onlar ailesinden veya kendisinden geliri olanlara para karşılığında siyaset ve retorik (güzel konuşma) dersleri veriyorlardı. Demokrasi ile yönetilen atina’da, halk meclisinin karşısında fikirlerini ustalıkla savunmak ve avukatların yer almadığı

halk mahkemesinde (heleia)  suçsuzluğunu ispatlamak zorunda olan kişiler için sofistlerin verdiği bu derslerin önemi inkar edilemez. Birinci kuşak sofistlerin ortak paydası demokrasi yanlısı olmalarıdır. Temel amaç insan yararıdır. Kosmosla veya tanrılarla ilgilenmek yerine en değerli varlık olan insanla ilgilenilmelidir. Retorik en temel bilimdir. Onlara göre her şey tatışılmalıdır. Hiç kimse bir başkasının fikrini peşinen kabul etmek zorunda zorunda değildir. Hiçbir bilgi kesin değildir, görecelidir. Her şey devamlı bir değişim halindedir. Bu fikri en güzel Protogoras ‘Metros antropos panton=İnsan her şeyin ölçüsüdür’ sözü ile ifade eder. Bu sözü aristokrasi yanlısı Pindaros’un (n)omos (geleneksel ve ilahi hukuk) her şeyin kralidir’ ifadesindeki baskıcı ve kolektivist görüşüne karşılık söylemiştir.

     İlk kuşak sofistlere göre toplum ilahi bir yapıt değil fakat bir insan yapıtıdır. Her yurttaş toplumu ilgilendiren sorunlar hakkında fikir yürütebilir. Bir başka deyişle siyaset bilgisi ya da siyasal erden belli bir azınlığın (aristokratların) ayrıcalığı değildir, fakat herkes bundan pay almıştır, dolayısı ile herkes siyasal yaşama katılabilir ve katılmalıdır. Yunanlıların kardeş oldukları ve birleşmeleri gerektiği fikrine sahiptirler. Bu görüşün ortaya çıkmasında, sofistlerin atina’da metoikos(yabancı) statüsünde olmaları ve siyasal haklardan yoksun bulunmaları etkili olmuş olabilir. Keza eğer Helen birliği sağlansaydı yerli-yabancı diye bir ayrım olmayacaktı. Birinci kuşak sofistlerdebireysel faydacılık izleri bulabiliriz.

    Onlara göre birey ve toplumun amacı ayrı olamaz: poliste mevki ve güç peşinde koşan kişi ‘demokratik sistemin gereklerini yerine getiriyor, onun gelişimine katkıda bulunuyor demektir. Siyasal alandaki bu anlayış ekonomik alana uygulandığında, bu kez ekonomik liberalizmin temel ilkelerinden biri ortaya çıkar. Bu kişinin yetenekleri ve bilgisi ölçüsünde kendi çıkarlarını gerçekleştirirken toplumsal gönencin ve gücün artmasına katkıda bulunduğu ilkesidir.

     Birinci kuşak sofistlerin fikirleri özgürlükçü ve demokratik mahiyette idi.

     Sofos bilge edinimi eksiksiz olan, davranışlarında, eylemlerinde, tutumlarında ve duyuşlarında bilginin ideal düzeyde oluşudur. Sofizm insanı bilme konusu haline getirdi. Bilgi bireyi erdemli kılan unsur olarak görüldü. Var olan her şeyi akıl ışığında sorgulama, araştırma ve anlamaya çalışma esastır. Sofosun öz doğası düşünmektir. Bu düşünme kapsayıcı, kavrayıcı ve ötekini de kuşatıcı niteliktedir. Bu bilgi mekan ve zamanla sınırlı değildir. Bireyin eğitilmesi ile alakalıdır. İnsanı insan yapan bir statüyü hedefler. Bilgilerimizin davranışlarımıza yansıması için onları içselleştirmemiz gerekir. Böyle bir statünün oluşması için de sofistler devreye girer.

    Atina’da refah bir toplum düzeni vardır. Demokrasi egemendir. Bu da büyük bir değişimin habercisidir. Bireylerde bu değişim farklı eğitim talebi ortaya çıkarmıştır. Kilise tekelinde olan eğitim özel okullara geçmiştir. Bu dönemde zenginleşen toplum düzeninin bilgi ışığında dizayn edilmesi gerekir. Sofistler bu geçişteki boşluğu doldurmak için ortaya çıktılar. Sofistler PAİDEİA (kapsamlı, kültürel eğitim sistemi)  ya bağlı olarak hareket ettiler, burada bilginin ışığı önemlidir. Sofistler bilgi satma eğilimine girdiler. Amaçları site devletlerindeki seçkinleri eğitmektir. Bu açıdan kendilerini bilgelik öğretmenleri olarak tanımladılar.  Sofistlerin bu tutumu sofizm hareketine neden olmuştur, bilimin toplum yararına olması gerektiğini savundular, araştırma duygusunu önemli görmediler, yararcı bir bakış hedefti.

     Bilgiyi ötekine öğreten öğretmen pozisyonundadırlar. Sofist bir nevi sofosun tutumunun bilgisini aktarıyor. Zamanla bu tutum siyasette yararlı olanı yetiştirmeye yönelik bir değişim gösteriyor. Sofos için trivium (üçlü) gramer, diyelektik, retorik (güzel söz söyleme,hitabet) e önem verdiler.

     Praksis (yararcı) demek

Sofistlerden önce bilgi erdem olarak görülmüştür. Onlarla pragsizme yönelmiştir. Daha sonra bu tutum değişmiştir. İnsanlar doğa olaylarından ziyade kendilerine yöneldiler. Atina’da Perslerle yapılan savaşlarda galip gelinse de sıkıntılar ortaya çıkmışken doğayla ilgilenmek pek de akılcı gelmiyordu. Böyle olunca yaratıcılık ortadan kalkmış oldu, gerileme yaşandı. Bunun yanında praksizme yönelik sorunlar ortaya çıktı. Böylece sofist tiplemesi ortaya çıktı.

     Felsefenin sunduğu dünyadaki sorunlar reel ve rasyonel gözükmemektedir. Yaşamın yarattığı sıkıntılar varken insana yönelmek daha mantıklıdır. Anaxogoras insan ile insan arasındaki ilişkileri yöneten mutlak bir ilke yoktur bu tümüyle ona nasıl baktığımızla ilgili bir sorundur der. Burada sofistik düşüncenin ipuçları görünmektedir. Doğa gibi insan için de yasalar vardır.İnsan her şeyin ölçüdür tezi böylece oluşturulmuştur. Bu yaklaşım büyük ölçüde tanrısal inancın, kutsal olanın kaynağına yöneltilmeye başlandı.

     Yasalar kabul edilen herkes için uygulanması tanrısal olanların tanrısal olduğu reddedilmeye başlandı. Bunların hepsinin odak noktasında insan vardır. Eğer kurallar tanrısal olsaydı heryerde aynı kurallar geçerli olurdu. Bu da şüphecilik duymalarına neden olmuştur. Bu sofizmin zeminini oluşturdu. Böylece insan eğitimine gidildi. Nasıl isteniyorsa öyle yetiştirilmeye ve güçlünün hakkı kendisine verilmesi doğal olarak görülmeye başlandı. Bu güç hak üretisine dayandı. Güçlünün güçsüzü ezmesi doğal olarak karşılanmaya başlandı. Bu da doğa ve varlık üzerine çıkar gözetmeye, felsefi spekülasyonun yerine insanın yapıp ettikleri getirilmeye başlandı ve böylece doğa yerine insana yönenildi. Buradaki hümanizm modern çağdaki hümanizmden farklıdır. Görelilik ilkesi egemendir. Buradaki hümanizm insanı ele almaktadır.

     Doğa filozofları ile sofistler arasındaki fark;

     Doğa filozofları evren ve arkhe problemine yöneldiler. Yani cosmosla ilgilendiler. Sofistler için bu durum farklıdır.evreni külli felsefi açıdan veya matematik ya da doğa bilimleri bakımından incelemek olumlu bir sonuca da götürmez, nitekim doğa filozofları bu konuda ortak bir bilgiye ulaşamamışlardır düşüncesi ile Merkeze insanı koydular,dil, mantık, bilgi teorisi, ahlak alanında ileri sürülen görüşler ile uğraşmak daha yararlı olmalıdır. Üstelik sofistler ilk olarak külli hakikat var olup olmadığı sorusunu ortaya atarak bunu kuramsal alandan pratik ahlak alanına kadar genişleteceklerdir. Sofistler Atina site-devletinin siyasi ve toplumsal, maddî ve manevi hayatının, Özetle toplumun kurum­ları, ahlâk, din, gelenek, yasa konulanndaki düşünüş ve uygulanış tarzlan üzerinde şüp­he uyandıracaklardır. Çünkü sofistler gerek bilim, gerek irade konulan dolayısıyla fel­sefeye sübjektiviteyi getiriyorlardı. Bunun asıl kaynağı, çıkış noktası ise, ferdi olanın tanınmasında ortaya çıkıyordu. insanı algı ve düşüncesi ile, irade ve eğilimleri ile, davranışları ve pratik yaşayışı ile incelemektir. amaçları eğitimden geçen başarılı bireyler yetiştirmekti. Burada kastedilen eğitim bireyin manevi dünyasının biçimlendirilmesi-form edilmesidir. Burda da PAİDEİA ya ihtiyaç duydular. Eğitim insan merkezli olacaksa Quatrilium (dörtlü eğitim) ona gerek yoktur. Triliuma gerek vardır. Bir kişi konuşulanları anlamıyorsa eğitilmesi söz konusu bile olamaz.  Öncelikle dil eğitiminden geçilmelidir. Dilin kurallarını çok iyi bilmeli ve çok iyi kullanmalıdır. Kullandığı dili karşıdakini etkileyebilecek düzeyde kullanmak yani hitabet düzeyinin yüksek olması gerekmektedir. Tartışma durumunda rakibini alt etmek  mantık ve retoriğin uygun özneler yetiştirmek hedeftir. Soruya soruyla cevap vermek mümkündür. Retoriğe dayalı tartışma büyük ölçüde sofizm-sofistik tutum olarak adlandırılır. Belli bir amaç yoktur, tartışmak için de tartışılabilir. Bu düşünce zamanla değersiz bir hal aldı.

     Protagoras bu görüşü ünlü yargısıyla şöyle ifade ediyor: “İnsan bütün eşyanın ölçüsüdür, varolanların var­lığının, yokolanlanın yokluğunun. Buradaki insanferdi insandır, kısacası birey söz konusudur burada. Protagoras’a göre, her eşyanın, algılayan insan için, algı­nın bağlı olduğu şartlara bağlı bir hakikati vardır ve genelolarak geçerli bir hakikat yoktur. Sözgelimi belli sıcaklıktaki su hasta olan kimseye farklı, sağlıklı olana farklı ge­lir. Herakleitos gibi Protagoras da sürekli değişimi, oluşu kabul ediyorsa da ulaştıkla­rı sonuç aynı değildir. Böylece relativizme ulaşan Protagoras duyumlardan gelen algı­yı tek bilgi kaynağı olarak kabul eder, dola­yısıyladuyumcu (sensualist)dur. Protagoras olsun, Öteki sofistler olsun, insanların teorik alanda düşünmele­rini yararsız görürler ve hayatın pratik yö­nüne ağırlık verirler. Dolayısıyla doğal, toplumsal, özellikle siyasî durum ve şartla­rın öğrenilmesi, bunlara egemen olunması önemlidir. Bu anlayış bakımından Protago­ras insanların ve toplumun inandığı tanrıla­rın var olup olmadıklarının bilinemiyeceğini de ileri sürer. Çünkü bu konuda kesin bîr bilgiye ulaşmada insan hayatının kısalığı, bizzat konunun kapalılığı birer engeldir. Nitekim tanrıları inkâr ettiği gerekçesiyle yargılanacaktır. Kısacası o relativizmi ve duyumculuğuyla bütün bilimlere karşı bir şüphe içinde oldu.

 

Gorgias ise bu anlayışı daha ileri götüre­rek görüşlerini üç noktada yoğunlaştırdı :

1) Hiçbir şey mevcut değildir.

2) Eğer mevcut olsaydı, biz onu bilemezdik.

3) Bilseydik bile, başkalarına bildiremezdik. Böylece şüpheciliğe (sceptisisme)ulaşır. Yani Protagoras’ın her görüşün doğruluğunu Öne sürmesine karşılık Gorgias her görüşün yanlış olduğu sonucuna ulaşarak felsefe ta­rihinde “bilimsel nihilist” nitelemesine hak kazanacaktır.

Sokrates’in habercisi olarak da anılan bir başka sofist Prodikos (Perudikus), Protago­ras ve Gorgias’in dil, gramer ve kelimelerin düzenlenmesi çalışmaları paralelinde, eşanlamlı kelimeler ve gramer üzerinde in­celemeler yapü. Fakat asıl görüşü dinin olu­şumunu akli ve aynca çıkar esasıyla açıkla­maktır. Ona göre eski insanlar yararlı bul­dukları her şeyi tanrı sembolleriyle anlat­mışlardır. Meselâ ekmek Demeler, şarab Dionysos, su Poseidon, ateş Hephaistos gi­bi. Ahlâk alanındaki düşünüşü Antikçağ ve ilk hıristiyan edebiyatı üzerinde etkili ol­muştur.

Hippias ise, yasanın insana musallat bir zorba olduğunu, zecir ile insana doğaya ay­kırı birçok şeyleri yerleştirmeye yönelttiği­ni ileri sürer. Toplumsal düzeni oluşturan değer normları, meselâ ahlâk, hukuk, ve örf böyledir. Platon bunun için Hippias’ı anar­şizmin öncülerinden sayar. Ne var ki, başka sofistlere bakıldığında Hippias ılımlı kalır.Sofistler’in “doğa hakkı” şeklinde ifade edi­len teorilerine göre, “doğa” neyi belirlemiş ve gerekli kılmışsa o “hak”tır. Bu nedenle insanlık tarihinin başlangıcından beri in­sanların koyduğu hukuk ve kanunlar sınırlı bir değere sahiptirler. Çünkü konulan bu kanunlar, kanun koyucunun çıkarını koru­mak için düzenlenmişler, ortaya konulmuş­lardır.

Bu kanunlara boyun eğmek deliliktir, hatta aptallıktır. Çünkü her şahıs kendi eği­limlerine göre davranır. Başka bir söyleyiş-le sofistler “doğada olan” (physei) ile “insa­nın koyduğu” (These) arasındaki karşıtlığı savunurlar. Bu nedenle insanların koyduk­larına değil, doğada olana uygun davran­mak gerekir. Nitekim sofist Antiphon doğal hukuk ile pozitif hukuk, yani insanın koyduğu hukuk ayrımını yapar. Pozitif hukukinsanların eğilimlerine, kanaatlerine (doxa) dayandığından güçsüzdür. Ayrıca insanla­rın doğada eşit olduklarını da savunur. Top­lumdaki ayrıcalıklar, soyluluk unvanları, sınıf ayrılıkları, doğadan değil, insanın koymalarından dolayıdır. Thrasymakhos ise adaletin, güçlü olanın arzusu ve irade­sinden başka bir şey olmadığını söyler. Onun için “adalet güçlüye yarayan, güçsüze zararlı olan şeydir”. Kallikles bunun tam tersini savunarak, adalet, güçsüzlerin, za­yıfların kendilerini korumak için güçlülere karşı kurdukları bir tuzaktır der. Çünkü do­ğa güçlüye hakim olma hakkını vermiştir, güçlü olan da bu hakkını dilediğince kullan­dığında mutlu olabilir, dolayısıyla adaleti sağlar. Böylece sofistler, “doğal olan” in (physei) “toplumsal olan”dan (thesei) yani doğal hukukun pozitif hukuktan üstün ol­duğunu savunmuşlardır.

Paideia: eğitmek sözkonusudur, herhangi bir şekilde değil kurama bağlı olarak eğitmek sözkonusudur, Theoria: seyretmek özelliği oluşun arkasındakini kavramaya yöneliktir. Doğa bilgisinin elde edildiği tutumun adıdır. Kurama dayalı bir tutumdur.–>praksiz ort çıktı

Sofistler doğa düzeni(physei) ile toplum ya da yasa düzenini (nomoi) birbirinden kesin biçimde ayıran ilk düşünürler olmuşlardır. Bu anlayışta insan, elbette doğanın bir parçasıdır ama diğer canlıların aksine, kendisine bambaşka bir dünya yaratabilmekte, kendi yasasını ve doğruluğunu üretebilmektedir. Doğada adalet, güzellik ya da iyilik gibi nitelemeler bulunmaz. Bunlar insanın kendisinin ürettiği ve ancak yasa düzeninde anlam kazanan kavramlardır. Sofist tezlerini en iyi özetleyen cümle ‘insan her şeyin ölçüsüdür’cümlesidir.

Doğal olan ile konulmuş olan karşıtlığını Kritias, din alanında da düşünür. Kritias tanrıların, zeki devlet adamlarının insan ve toplumun itaati altına alma için, tanrıları koyduklarını ve bunun da gerçekte bir ku­runtu olduğunu söyler.

Sofistler insan merkezcilik ve physis-nomos ayrımının yanı sıra, siyasi eşitlik ilkesinin temellendirmesi bakımından da çığır açmışlardır. Protogorassaygınlığın(aidos) ve adaletin(dike) insanlara eşit biçimde pay edildiğini, bu yüzden yönetim sanatında herkesin konuşmaya eşit biçimde hakkı olduğunu savunarak siyasi eşitlik ilkesini formüle eden ilk kişi oldu.  Sofistlere göre siyaset yapma becerisi saygınlık(aidos) ve adaletin(dike) gibi olgulardan daha önce gelmekteydi.

Sofistler insanı politika yapan hayvan olarak tanımlamaktaydılar.insan henüz en özlü tanımı itibari ile doğadan kopmuş, doğanın kendisinde olmayan bir özlükle (siyaset yapma9 donatılmıştır. İnsan politika yapan hayvandır ve hayvanlardan farklı olarak kendi politik dünyasını kurar. Politika yapan hayvan tanımlaması Platon ve Aristotales tarafından da büyük ölçüde benimsendi ve homo societus ifadesinde nihai anlatımını buldu. İnsan(homo), toplum(societus) sözcüklerinden türetilmiş olan bu ifade insanın özü itibari ile sosyal bir varlık olduğunu vurgular.

Kısacası sofistlerin İnsan, toplum, dev­let, doğru ve küllî düşünce ve bilgi, ahlâk, hukuk, dîn, tanrı vb. konularında İleri süre­rek geliştirdikleri relativizm, sübjektivizm ve şüpheciliklerle yıkıcı bir rol oynamışlar­dır. Ancak öte taraftan bu konular üzerinde geniş bir tartışma açarak değişik görüşlerin ortaya çıkmalarını da hazırlamışlar ve ayrı­ca bilginin pratik hayatta kullanılır seviye­de ele alınmasını sağlamakla topluma ya­rarlı olmuşlardır. Yine Grek dilinin, keli­melerin ve dilbilgisinin düzene kavuşturul­masını, hitabet sanatının gelişmesini hazırlamışlardır. Yeni çağda, Özellikle Aydın­lanma felsefesinde sofistlerin görüşlerinin ele alınmasıyla, doğal hukuk, devlet, ahlâk alanlarında önemli gelişmeler sağlanmış­tır.

Author: admin

Merhaba, Ben Meltem Aköz, Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi mezunuyum, Bağımsız denetim ve şirket değerleme başlıca ilgi alanım olmak üzere, vergi, muhasebe ve felsefeyle ilgileniyorum. Yazılarımı genellikle bu alanlarda yazıyorum. İyi okumalar dilerim.

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